Pathology

Pathology is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.As a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells (morphologic changes), and the consequences of changes (clinical manifestations). In common medical practice, general pathology is mostly concerned with analyzing known clinical abnormalities that are markers or precursors for both infectious and non-infectious disease and is conducted by experts in one of two major specialties, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology).

Chandan Speciality Lab, a central lab for all specialized pathological investigations at Biotechnology Park, Lucknow is a combination of state-of-the-art equipments, global best practices and an extensive intellectual capital. It has made Chandan Healthcare Ltd. a front runner in the area of diagnostic testing.It is backed by a large team of pathologists, microbiologists, biochemists and trained medical laboratory technologists along with the supporting personnel.

Chandan does more than 10 million tests per year and provide quality services to 5 million patients every year.

The company's central lab at Lucknow has the facilities to perform the most comprehensive tests range including more than 2000 different tests and panels in the field of

  • Molecular Diagnostics,
  • Biophysics,
  • Virology,
  • Flowcytometry,
  • Cytogenetics,
  • Endocrinology,
  • Nutrition & Metabolic Disorders,
  • Oncology,
  • Toxicology,
  • Immunochemistry,
  • Infectious diseases,
  • Biochemistry,
  • Hematology,
  • Histopathology, and
  • Cytology.

The lab is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year to ensure continuous service.

The laboratory has a well documented Quality Assurance (QA) program based on good laboratory practices (GLP) and highest priority is given to client confidentiality. We perform testing in the laboratory using standard operating procedures and world class equipment. Our Quality Assurance team understands that accurate clinical data is the key to maintaining the integrity of researches and for the well-being of each subject.

Sample Management

Pre-analytical factors can contribute to as high as 55% of total errors made by a pathology laboratory. We, at Chandan Specialty Lab, use effective Sample Management practices and well-organized pre-analytical systems to eliminate possible errors in test reports.

Our Lab Services Section has put into place, a detailed system of checks in the following areas:
  • Registration
  • Sample Handling and Labelling (Bar coding)
  • Sample Collection
  • Sample Transport
  • Sample preparation and storage
  • Sample Dispatch to Laboratory for Analysis
Registration:
  • A dedicated team of trained data entry operators carries out the registration process.
  • Double-checking of data entry is done under supervision, which ensures zero errors in registration of sample.
  • All the requisitions are stored in organized manner for reference.
  • Registration is done online.
  • Major collection/reference centres are directly connected through lease line for registration and reporting.
Sample Handling and Labeling:
  • A dedicated team of technicians ensures checking of sample integrity, labelling and bar-coding.
  • To ensure result reliability, acceptance and rejection of sample policies are well defined.
  • As soon as registration is done, specific bar code for the patient's sample is generated, which carries SID (Sample identification number) information.
  • The software generates appropriate number of bar codes for each patient.
  • The bar code label also contains patient's name, date and time of collection, name of tests and type of container.
  • The system ensures zero chance of wrong labelling.
Sample Collection:
  • We have a separate patient services section responsible for sample collection. This section is a group of well-trained experienced phlebotomists working under supervision of our Customer Care department.
  • The main laboratory, peripheral laboratory and collection centres have uniform appearance, infrastructure and work instructions.
  • We take care of patients' privacy and comfort by carrying out entire activities of registration, history recording, sample collection, fees collection and discussion within collection room.
  • The samples are collected in vacuum containers.
  • Most of the blood collection material and devices required are disposable.
  • We try to make blood collection a painless and trouble-free procedure.
  • Extra care is taken for paediatric and difficult collections.
Sample Transport:
  • All the collection rooms, collection centres and reference centres carry a directory of Chandan Directory of services, which has detailed guidelines on sample collection, preparation, storage and transport.
  • The most labile analytics like Ammonia, Semen and Bicarbonate are collected only at the main processing laboratory. Any other collected sample is not accepted.
  • Other labile analytics like PTH, ACTH and HIV-RNA are transported in dry ice.
  • All the regular samples are transported in cool gel packs in a temperature controlled specially designed vaccine/ thermacoal boxes.
  • To maintain integrity of samples the local samples are delivered within 3-4 hours and outstation samples within 8 to 24 hours using cargo or courier mode.
  • Specific insulated vaccine boxes have been designed for transport of samples that have special temperature requirements.
Sample Preparation and Storage:
  • It is mandatory to carry out sample preparation activity as early as possible for efficiency and for maintenance of sample integrity.
  • Serum/plasma is separated within 30 minutes.
  • Critical/labile samples like semen, ESR etc. are sent for analysis immediately.
  • Necessary facilities have been given for storing samples at ambient, refrigeration or frozen (up to -700C) levels.
  • Based on the type of tests requested and depending on nature of analyte, the samples are stored from 4 days to 1 month.
Sample Dispatch to Laboratory for Analysis:
  • Samples are dispatched to analytical area with utmost care.
  • Each laboratory section is equipped with scanners for easy tracking of samples.
  • The system is foolproof to ensure zero sample loss or misplacement.

Report Management

Report Generation:
  • A separate Report Section team is responsible for report generation.
  • Automatic "Reports ready for printing" ensures that reports have undergone three levels of authorization and ready for printing.
  • The physical copies carry patient's demographics in detail, reference details, test information, results of analysis and digital signature of the pathologist who has finally authorized the report.
  • The layout of the reports ensures easy presentation.
  • The physical copies are reviewed before putting them into envelopes.
  • These report envelopes are sorted according to reference for dispatch.
  • Each report carries specific bar code for easy tracking.

Report Dispatch:

The reports are delivered through various modes:
  • All the franchisee and outstation reference centre reports are uploaded on web. They become accessible immediately after final authorization.
  • In selected cases, the outstation reports are sent through courier.
  • "Remote printing" mode is also used by collection centres.
  • In-house courier team efficiently delivers local reference centres reports.
  • Appropriate log of report dispatch and delivery is maintained.

Microbiology

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, parasitology, mycology and bacteriology.

Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryoticorganisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include eubacteria and archaebacteria. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, example 16s rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry at Chandan Hospital deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. The chemistry of the cell also depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins. In medicine, biochemists investigate the causes and cures of diseases. In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies.

Cytopathology

Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. It is usually used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, but also helps in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions as well as thyroid lesions, diseases involving sterile body cavities (peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal), and a wide range of other body sites. Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments (in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues) and cytopathologic tests are sometimes called smear tests because the samples may be smeared across a glass microscope slide for subsequent staining and microscopic examination.

Haematopathology

Hematopathology is the study of diseases of blood cells (including constituents such as white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and the tissues, and organs comprising the hematopoietic system. The term hematopoietic system refers to tissues and organs that produce and/or primarily host hematopoietic cells and includes bone marrow, the lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and other lymphoid tissues. The hematopathologist reviews biopsies of lymph nodes, bone marrows and other tissues involved by an infiltrate of cells of the hematopoietic system.

Histopathology

Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of various forms of human tissue. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides. This contrasts with the methods of cytopathology, which uses free cells or tissue fragments. Histopathological examination of tissues starts with surgery, biopsy, or autopsy. The tissue is removed from the body of an organism and then placed in a fixative that stabilizes the tissues to prevent decay. The most common fixative is formalin, although frozen section fixing is also common. To see the tissue under a microscope, the sections are stained with one or more pigments. The aim of staining is to reveal cellular components; counterstains are used to provide contrast. The histological slides are then interpreted diagnostically and the resulting pathology report describes the histological findings and the opinion of the pathologist.

Immunopathology

Immunopathology at Chandan Hospital is a branch of clinical pathology that deals with an organism’s immune response to a certain disease. When a foreign antigen enters the body, there is either an antigen specific or nonspecific response to it. These responses are the immune system fighting off the foreign antigens, whether they are deadly or not. Immunopathology could refer to how the foreign antigens cause the immune system to have a response or problems that can arise from an organism’s own immune response on itself. There are certain problems or faults in the immune system that can lead to more serious illness or disease. These diseases can come from one of the following problems. The first would be Hypersensitivity reactions, where there would be a stronger immune response than normal. There are four different types (type one, two, three and four), all with varying types and degrees of an immune response. The problems that arise from each type vary from small allergic reactions to more serious illnesses such as tuberculosis or arthritis. The second kind of complication in the immune system is Autoimmunity, where the immune system would attack itself rather than the antigen. Inflammation is a prime example of autoimmunity, as the immune cells used are self-reactive. A few examples of autoimmune diseases are Type 1 diabetes, Addison’s disease and Celiac disease. The third and final type of complication with the immune system is Immunodeficiency, where the immune system lacks the ability to fight off a certain disease. The immune system’s ability to combat it is either hindered or completely absent. The two types are Primary Immunodeficiency, where the immune system is either missing a key component or does not function properly, and Secondary Immunodeficiency, where disease is obtained from an outside source, like radiation or heat, and therefore cannot function properly. Diseases that can cause immunodeficiency include HIV, AIDS and leukemia.