Dermatology

Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases. It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.

Treatment:

Therapies provided by dermatologists include, but are not restricted to the following:

  • Excision and treatment of skin cancer
  • Cryosurgery – for the treatment of warts, skin cancers, and other dermatosis.
  • Cosmetic filler injections
  • Hair removal with laser or other modalities
  • Hair transplantation – a cosmetic procedure practiced by many dermatologists.
  • Intralesional treatment – with steroid or chemotherapy.
  • Laser therapy – for both the management of birth marks, skin disorders (like vitiligo), tattoo removal, and cosmetic resurfacing and rejuvenation.
  • Chemical peels for the treatment of acne, melasma, and sun damage
  • Photodynamic therapy – for the treatment of skin cancer and precancerous growths.
  • Phototherapy – including the use of narrowband UVB, broadband UVB, psoralen and UVB.
  • Tattoo removal with laser.
  • Tumescent liposuction
  • Radiation therapy
  • Vitiligo surgery – Including procedures like autologous melanocyte transplant, suction blister grafting and punch grafting.
  • Allergy testing – 'Patch testing' for contact dermatitis.
  • Systemic therapies – including antibiotics, immunomodulators, and novel injectable products.
  • Topical therapies

Cosmetic dermatology:

Non-surgical procedures-

  • Laser treatments
  • Chemical peel
  • Injectable fillers
  • Botox and Dysport
  • Lip augmentation
  • Non-surgical nose job
  • Non-surgical facelift
  • Acne treatment
  • Acne scar removal
  • Microdermabrasion
  • Dermabrasion
  • Vein treatment
  • Scar removal
  • Skin tightening

Surgical procedures-

  • Mole removal
  • Mohs surgery (reconstruction)
  • Hair transplant
  • Liposuction
  • Facelift
  • Eyelid surgery

Dermatitis :

Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin. These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash.

Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis. The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear. Cases may involve a combination of irritation, allergy, and poor venous return.

Irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet.

Allergic contact dermatitis occurs upon exposure to an allergen causing a hypersensitivity reaction in the skin.

Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams. Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection. Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant. Antihistamines may help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching.

Skin infection

Infection of the skin, is distinguished from dermatitis, which is inflammation of the skin, but a skin infection can result in skin inflammation. Skin inflammation due to skin infection is called infective dermatitis.

Bacterial-

Bacterial skin infections include :
  • Folliculitis is an infection of the hair follicle that can resemble pimples.
  • Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection most common among pre-school children. It is primarily caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and sometimes by Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • Erysipelas is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the deep epidermis with lymphatic spread.
  • Cellulitis is a diffuse inflammation of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin. Cellulitis can be caused by normal skin flora or by exogenous bacteria, and often occurs where the skin has previously been broken: cracks in the skin, cuts, blisters, burns, insect bites, surgical wounds, intravenous drug injection or sites of intravenous catheter insertion. Skin on the face or lower legs is most commonly affected by this infection, though cellulitis can occur on any part of the body.

Fungal-

Fungal skin infections may present as either a superficial or deep infection of the skin, hair, and/or nails.

Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites-

Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites in humans are caused by several groups of organisms belonging to the following phyla: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Cyanobacteria, Echinodermata, Nemathelminthes, Platyhelminthes, and Protozoa.

Viral-

Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites in humans are caused by several groups of organisms belonging to the following phyla: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Cyanobacteria, Echinodermata, Nemathelminthes, Platyhelminthes, and Protozoa.